Halifax

My first ancestor from the Halifax area were Thomas Sheard of Ovenden, a township in Halifax, who made his fortune as a woolman and founded a dynasty of Sheards in West Yorkshire through his four sons…and the Hemingways of the Walterclough, who also headed a family of cloth makers in the 1500s and who spread out from Halifax to Dewsbury and beyond…and were still making cloth in the 20th century.

History Notes

The town’s name was recorded in about 1091 as Halyfax, from the Old English  halh-gefeaxe, meaning “area of coarse grass in the nook of land”. Halifax is not mentioned in the Domesday Book, but, by the late 13th Century, Halifax had become the centre of a large parish, extending from Brighouse to Heptonstall. It was destined to become one of the most important centres for woollen cloth over the next centuries and was to become the third most prosperous woollen manufacturing towns in Britain.

Halifax, from Penny Magazine March 15th 1834

HALIFAX, a parish and market town, municipal and parliamentary borough, in the wapentake of Morley, West Riding county York, 7 miles S.W. of Bradford, 16¼, from Leeds, and 194 N.N.W. of London by road, and 203 by rail. It has stations on the Lancashire and Yorkshire, and on the Leeds, Bradford, and Halifax Junction lines, thus communicating with the Great Northern, London and North Western, and Midland railways. The town is situated on the river Hebble, a tributary to the river Calder, and has a canal connected with the Aire and Calder navigation, which, together with the Rochdale canal, affords great facilities of water communication with most of the important manufacturing towns in the N.

Geographical and Historical information from the year 1868

One of the first fulling mills in the country was built in the 1290s at a village which became known as Sowerby Bridge, just outside Halifax. Calderdale weavers specialized in making a kind of cloth called Kersey, a kind of coarse woollen cloth that was an important component of the textile trade in Medieval England, used to make coats and jackets and always in high demand. By 1475 the Calderdale region had become the largest producer and exporter of Kersey cloth in England. By 1500 Halifax cloth was widely exported to the continent, where there was a big demand for Kersey. The Fellowship of Merchant Adventurers and the Eastland Company exported the woollen cloth and they had to be members of a merchant company. The first cloth hall was built at Hall End.

There is nothing so admirable in this town of Halifax as the industrie of the inhabitants who, not withstanding an unprofitable and barraine soil, have so flourished by the cloth trade that they greatly enrich their own estates and winne praise from all their neighbours.

Camden Britannica 1586

Large quantities of soft water were needed to make and finish woollen cloth and Calderdale towns around Halifax were ideal for this purpose. The water from rivers also powered waterwheels to run textile machinery as the woollen industry moved from domestic premises to mills.

Halifax Houses

Broadlay Hall, Halifax

In the fifteen century, Halifax is said to have had only 15 houses. Local clothiers prospered in the 15th and 16th centuries, by combining their farming with cloth making. As these men became wealthier “Yoemen”, they began to build houses that reflected their worth. A style of house began to emerge in the district, to become known as “Halifax Houses”.

The Halifax houses had a “housebody” which was open from ground to roof and, at the sides, they built aisles for extra width and to show off their wealth. Aisles also allowed the owner to create ground floor rooms with chambers above. A clothier might set up looms or store wool and pieces ready for market in the side aisles. Halifax houses typically had long mullioned windows and were built of dressed stone…sometimes they added a double-storey porch.

“…and so nearer we came to Halifax we found the houses thicker and the villages greater…if we knocked at the door of any of the master manufacturers we presently saw a house full of lusty fellows, some at the dye vat, some dressing the cloth, some in the loom.” 

Daniel Defoe 1724

Piece Hall

Dating from 1779, when it was built as a Cloth Hall for the trading of ‘pieces’ of broadcloth, Halifax Piece Hall is one of the most important buildings of its type and reflects the wealth of the town as a centre for cloth making and export at that time.

Phil Champion / The Piece Hall and Square Chapel from Beacon Hill (Creative Commons via Wikimedia)

Halifax Gibbet Law

Thieves caught at Halifax were not hanged, but were beheaded on a machine called the Halifax Gibbet, a precursor of the French guillotine. The origins of the Halifax Gibbet Law are shrouded by the mists of time. Some say that the law dated from before the Conquest of 1066, others say it existed under Saxon rule, but no source gives a definitive date.

execution scaffold
Halifax Gibbet from Camden’s Britannia 2nd Edition

It is known, however, that a John of Dalton was beheaded on the gibbet in 1286 and he is the first recorded, so it seems probable that it is around this time that the Gibbet originated. It may have been a result of permissions granted by King Henry III, in 1286, to John de Warren, Earl of Surrey, who was criticised by the archbishop of York, for the harshness of his treatment of his Yorkshire tenants. The Halifax Gibbet was a unique method of removing heads from bodies in a country not averse to beheadings. 

If a thief was caught in the Forest of Hardwick (a ‘forest’ was a measure of land, usually put aside for hunting and not, necessarily, densely wooded), with goods worth more that thirteen and one-half pennies, either handhabend (“re-handed” with the goods in his hand, or in the act of stealing), backberand (carrying the goods on his back) or confessand (having confessed to the theft), he would be brought before the Lord’s bailiff in Halifax. The manorial court had the right to execute anyone caught stealing woollen cloth, then known as “the Staple” because of its value to the realm.

If found guilty, the thief would be put in the town stocks for three market days (Tuesday, Thursday and Saturday), accompanied by the goods he stole, for all to see. On the third day, after sitting in the stocks, he would be taken to the Gibbet and beheaded.

But nothing is more remarkable, than their method of proceeding against Felons, which was just hinted before, viz. That a Felon taken within the Liberty, with Goods stol’n out of the Liberties or Precincts of the Forest of Hardwick, should after three Markets or Meeting-days within the town of Halifax, next after his apprehension, be taken to the Gibbet there, and have his head cut off from his body. But then the fact was to be certain; for he must either be taken hand-habend, i.e. having his hand in, or being in the very act of stealing; or back-berond, i.e. having the thing stolen either upon his back, or somewhere about him, without giving any probable account how he came by it; or lastly confesson’d, owning that he stole the thing for which he was accus’d.

  

The cause therefore must be only theft, and that manner of theft only which is call’d furtum manifestum, or notorious Theft, grounded upon some of the foresaid evidences. The value of the thing stolen must likewise amount to above 13(thirteen pence) for if the value was found only so much, and no more, by this Custom he should not die for it.

   

He was first brought before the Bailiff of Halifax, who presently summon’d the Frithborgers within the several Towns of the Forest; and, being found guilty, within a week he was brought to the Scaffold. The Ax was drawn up by a pulley, and fasten’d with a pin to the side of the Scaffold.

   

If it was an horse, an ox, or any other creature, that was stol’n; it was brought along with him to the place of execution, and fasten’d to the cord by a pin that stay’d the block. So that when the time of execution came (which was known by the Jurors holding up one of their hands) the Bailiff or his Servant whipping the beast, the pin was pluck’d out, and execution done. But if it was not done by a beast, then the Bailiff or his Servant cut the rope. But the manner of execution will be better apprehended by the following draught of it.

Camden Britannia 1577

The region to which the law applied comprised the townships and hamlets of Halifax, Ovenden, Illingworth, Mixenden, Bradshaw, Skircoat, Warley, Sowerby, Rishworth, Luddenham, Midgley, Erringden, Heptonstall, Rottenstall, Stansfield, Cross-stone, and Langfield. In the Chronicles of Holinshed who, in his “Description of England, 1577”, wrote of the Gibbet Law:

Witches are hanged or sometimes burned, but thieves are hanged (as I said before) generally on the gibbet or gallows, saving in Halifax where they are beheaded after a strange manner, and whereof I find this report. There is and hath been of ancient time a law or rather a custom at Halifax, that who so ever doth commit any felony, and is taken with the same, or confess the fact upon examination; if it be valued by four constables to amount to the sum of thirteen pence half penny, he is forthwith beheaded upon one of the next market days (which fall usually upon the Tuesdays, Thursdays, & Saturdays) or else upon the same day that he is so convicted, if market then be holden.

   

The engine wherewith the execution is done, is a square block of wood of the length of four foot and a half, which doth ride by and down in a slot, rabbet, or regall (sic) between two pieces of timber, that are framed and set upright of five yards in height. In the nether end of the sliding block is an axe keyed or fastened with an iron into the wood, which being drawn up to the top of the frame is there fastened by a wooden pin (with a notch made into the same after the manner of a Sampson post) unto the middest of which pin also there is a long rope fastened that cometh down among the people, so that when the offender hath made his confession, and hath laid his neck over the nethermost block, every man there present doth either take hold of the rope (or putteth forth his arm so near to the same as he can get, in token that he is willing to see true justice executed) and pulling out the pin in this manner, the head block wherein the axe is fastened doth fall down with such violence, that if the neck of the transgressor were so big as that of a bull, it should be cut in sunder at a stroke, and roll from the body by an huge distance.

Chronicles of Holinshed, 1577
Halifax Gibbet

Almost 100 people were beheaded in Halifax between the first recorded execution in 1286 and the last in 1650. By 1650 public opinion considered beheading to be an excessively severe punishment for “petty theft” and use of the gibbet was forbidden by Oliver Cromwell, Lord Protector of the Commonwealth of England, and the structure was dismantled. In 1974 a replica was built and erected in Gibbet Street. It includes a casting from the original blade.

Poem 

“There is a Proverbe, and a prayer withall,
That we may not to these strange places fall,
From Hull, from Halifax, from Hell, ‘tis thus,
From all these three, Good Lord deliver us.
This praying proverb’s meaning to set down,
Men do not wish deliverance from the Town:
The towns named Kingston, Hull’s furious River:
And from Hull’s dangers, I say Lord deliver.
At Halifax, the law so sharp doth deal,
That whoso more than 13 Pence doth steal,
They have a jyn that wondrous quick and well,
Sends thieves all headless unto Heav’n or Hell.
From Hell each man says, Lord deliver me,
Because from Hell can no redemption be:
Men may escape from Hull and Halifax,
But sure in Hell there is a heavier tax,
Let each one for themselves in this agree,
And pray, from Hell good Lord deliver me.”

A Verry Merry Wherry-ferry-voyage, Or, Yorke for My Money: Sometimes Perilous, Sometimes Quarrellous, Performed with a Paire of Oares, by Sea from London by John Taylor, the Water Poet 1580-1653.
From: All the workes of John Taylor the water-poet Beeing sixty and three in number. Collected into one volume by the author: with sundry new additions corrected, revised, and newly imprinted, 1630.

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