May 032017
 
loom in mill

My new book, ” A Victorian Society” is now available to buy from Amazon UK, EU and USA (UK price is £15). It’s a strange feeling to have such a major work in print. I’ve published books before but nothing on this scale. Whilst the book is local history in content, it has a lot of information about Victorian society in general and the world of photography and photographic societies in particular, so I believe that it will be interesting to a wider range of readers than just those with an interest in Oldham.

The book includes biographies of many of Oldham’s prominent individuals in the 19th and early 20th centuries.

Product details

  • Paperback: 326 pages
  • Language: English
  • ISBN-10: 1545379858
  • ISBN-13: 978-1545379851
  • Product Dimensions: 27.9×21.6 x1.9  cm (approx 11×8.5 inches)
Price £15 (including postage in UK)
See product  at this link.

victorian soc book

Description of “A Victorian Society”

“A Victorian Society” is a book about early photography and photographers, told against the backdrop of life in what was to become the most productive cotton spinning town in the world.

In 1867, when photography was still in its infancy, a group of photographers from Oldham and District met at the Hare and Hounds Inn, Yorkshire Street, and founded the Oldham Photographic Society and some of these men would provide the early photographic studios in the town. The photographic portrait had been accessible only to the wealthy but now it was beginning to be affordable by all but the poorest in society. One evening each week, the early photographers of Oldham met to share knowledge and to collect photographs in their album, which has mostly lain unseen in the society’s archives for over 100 years. “A Victorian Society” has more than 300 black and white photographs and illustrations, many of which are published here for the first time.

The book first traces the early days of photography through the lives of the pioneers, in France and Britain, whose work led to the creation of the permanent photographic image, paving the way for all professional and amateur photography.

After the Lancashire cotton famine, the late 1860s marked the beginning of the most exciting period of Oldham’s history. The author examines the rise of the town to become one of the most important cotton spinning and textile engineering towns in the world and follows its progress through phenomenal growth to eventual decline.

The Victorian age was the “Age of Invention” and the Oldham Photographic Society reflects that through the stories of its early members, many of whom rose to prominence in the world of photography, commerce and manufacturing, some of their businesses achieving national and international importance. Using genealogy sources and historic publications, the author researched the lives of many of the society’s Victorian members and brings them together in a social group not studied before. Their stories give a real insight into their origins, successes, rise to fortune, sometimes failures and personal tragedies.

The book concludes with a guide on how to date old photographs.

BUY “A Victorian Society”

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Feb 172014
 

Thomas Sheard of Ovenden, Halifax, is my ancestor and is the ancestor of many if not most of the Sheards in the Dewsbury, Batley, Mirfield and Kirkheaton areas. I must therefore have a great number of Kirklees Cousins named Sheard! But Sheard is not one of the oldest names in the area. In fact it probably came into the Calderdale area in the 16th Century, possibly with Richard Sherd, who may have been Thomas’s father, from where it spread to Mirfield and on to other parts of Kirklees through Thomas’s sons. Thomas Sheard of Ovenden is regarded as the key person in the ancestry of many if not most of the Mirfield, Batley and Kirkeaton Sheard families. The featured image is a Wool merchant’s sign c1500s.

The Sheard name

From the Huddersfield Examiner:

“In 2009, a rose bowl was presented to the Huddersfield and District Bowling veterans by local businessman Ian Armitage, accompanied by the association’s president, Frank Lockwood. The bowlers in the picture had the surnames of Bray, Crowther, Firth, Haigh, Hoyle, Pogson, Sheard and Sykes. All 10 names can be found in local parish registers from 1538. Nine of the names had their origins within six miles of Huddersfield, taking their history back to the 13th and 14th centuries. Sheard was the ‘new boy’; his family had moved into the Calder Valley by 1538…”

In “Surnames, DNA and Family History” co-written by George Redmonds of Lepton, West Yorkshire, geneticist Turi King and local history specialist David Hey of Sheffield University, a number of British surnames are traced to their origins in different parts of the UK and Europe. Dr George Redmonds an expert on the origins of surnames, speaking about the Sheard Family History, said:

“The surname Sherd is derived from a small locality in Cheshire and means a cleft or gap. It gave rise to a family name over 600 years ago and one of the first bearers of the name was Hugo del Sherd in 1354. Like many other families, the Sherds or Sheards were attracted before long to the commercial centres of the West Riding and in 1440 the surname appeared in Sheffield in the south and in 1455 in Ripon in the north. The next 100 years saw the rapid rise to prosperity of Halifax and not surprisingly by the 1530s a Richard Sherd was living in the Ovenden area. He was probably the father of Thomas Sheard of Ovenden who died in 1565 and whose will provides one of the main links in the family history (in Kirklees).”

Thomas Sheard of Ovenden

Thomas Sheard of Ovenden was a “woolman” who was born about 1515 in Ovenden (Halifax). Prior to his marriage, he had two illegitimate children, a boy and a girl, by Agnete Davey. Thomas married Margaret Holdesworth on 10th March 1550 in Halifax. The Holdesworth family ancestry in Halifax dates back to some of the earliest records in the area and they were an illustrious and influential family, but so far I have been unable to find exactly where Margaret links into them (see below).

Michael Sheard’s book “The History of Batley” gives a brief summary of the family of Thomas Sheard and includes a transcript of his will, signed in 1565. Thomas mentioned his illegitimate children in his will in addition to his five children, four sons and a daughter, from his ten year marriage to Margaret, whilst they were living in Ovenden.

  • Michael Sheard born 1551.
  • Martin Sheard born 1553.
  • Sybill Sheard born 1554.
  • Matthew Sheard, born 1559
  • Luke Sheard born 1561.

Thomas Sheard’s Will

The last will and testament of Thomas Sheard of Ovenden in Halifax Parish in 1565 reads:

“In the name of God, amen, the 12th September, 1565, I, Thomas Sheard of Ovenden, in the prsh of Halifax, within the co. of York, wolman, of whole myne and pfete remembrance but………………………and troubled with seckness, and therefore fearinge and mistrusting the uncertantie of this miserable and wretched world, do ordayne and make this my last will and testament in manner and forme as hereafter ensuythe ffirst and principallie I do giue and bequeathe my soule unto God almyghtie Or heavenie father, surlie Trustynge and stedfastlie belevenge to have full remisscon of all my synes in the bold shedding of his most dearlie beloved sone Or Savor Jesu Christ, and in the meritte of his blessed passion, and my bodie to be buried in the churche or churche garthe of Halifax, emongst the bodies of the other faith full people of God, and one mortuatie to the Vicar of the same church, according to the Raite of the late prince of most famous memory King Henrye the eigth statutes for that purpose established and pvided, ffirst, it is my will that I be decentlie brought further of all my goods according to my vocacon and whereas before the daite here of my deed bearing Date the seavent of June, in this instant seaventhe year of the reign of Or soveryne ladie queene Eliz.th that now is, I have gyven and delivered by good will and concent of Margaret Sheard, my wife, to Mychaell, Martin, Mathew and Luke Sheard, my sones and Sibell Sheard my Doughter, the full some of one hundrethe pounds of good and lawful English money, as by the said deide bearing date as it more plainlie it appeareth, the said whiche gyfte I will shall be and remayne fyrme and stable, and irremovable, in althings, and contente according to the proportine and terme of the same deide, ther my last will, or any other thinge or content to the contarie not withe standing, also, I do gyve and bequithe to the saide Margaret, my wife, the full third part of the Residue of all my goods, cattells, detts, and implements, where with she the said being prst at the making and reading hereof for the naturall faver and goodwill she hath and bearithe to her said children is agred and fulie contented, also I gyve to John Davye  my bastard sone 40shillings, also I gyve and bequithe to …….. Davye my bastard daughter 40shillings. I do gyve also and bequeathe to Thomas byshoppe of Surrobie, in Lincolnshire, 10shillings. I do gyve and bequithe to everyone of my godchildren 12 pence. I do gyve also and bequithe to Grace Dean 6s 8d. I do gyve and bequeathe to Eliz. Barwike, my sister, 3s 4d. I do gyve also and bequeithe to Edward Haldesworthe, my wyfes brother, two stone of shorte wolle, to make his children clothes to array them withal. The other two ptes and residue of all my goods, chattels and implements besides the said hundred pounds given by deede is paid, the said thirde pte appointed to the said Margaret Sheard, my wyfe, my detts, legaces and funeral expences deducted and discharged, I gyve and bequethe to the said Mychaell, Martin, Mathew, Luke and Sibell Sheard, my children, who with the said Margaret Sheard, my wyf, I do ordyne and make my lawful Executors of this my last will and testament, also, I have desired my verye faithful frends Mr John Waterhouse of Schypden, Gentleman, as principall, Robert Sheard, my brother, John Craven, John Whitley, Thomas Wilkinson, and William Otte (Oats), to be supervisors of this my said last will and Testament, unto whom I gyve authoritie and power to ovrsee, correct, and assyste my said Executores in all thing fur about, and concerning the true executing and performance of this my last will and testament according to the terms of the same. The which said supervisors shall shall have there costes and charges fullie borne of my said goods.

Witnes, Robt Bryghouse, Henrie Ryshworthe, John Spensor, Thomas Gledhill, William Burton, Gylberte Haldesworthe, John Ledgyerde

Will Proved 7 November 1565.”

(Note, we do not know what relationship Gylberte Haldesworthe had to the family but it is possible he was Margaret’s father. It is less likely he was her brother as he might, in that case, have been mentioned in Thomas’s will, as her brother Edward was).

Wool in 16th Century Halifax

Ancient Guilds predated the Norman Conquest and those such as Woolmen’s Guilds became regulated by King Henry II in the 12th Century. One of these, the Worshipful Company of Woolmen is one of the oldest of the Livery Companies of the City of London.  It was the body that oversaw wool merchants to ensure consistent standards throughout the wool industry. When wool prospered, so did the country, and  Queen Elizabeth I (1533– 1603) was so concerned about the fate of the wool trade that she decreed that all Englishmen except nobles had to wear a woollen cap to church on Sundays, to support the wool industry. In her reign, wool prospered and so did woolmen.  Even now, the seat of the Lord High Chancellor in the House of Lords is a large bag of wool called the ‘woolsack’, a reminder of the principal source of English wealth in the Middle Ages and beyond.

In the 16th Century, many Yorkshire towns began to grow along with the wool industry, the wealth becoming concentrated in the West Riding. The towns of Leeds, Wakefield and Halifax prospered because of the cloth trade and, during the 1500s, Halifax led the West Riding of Yorkshire towards becoming one of England’s most prosperous textile manufacturing districts. Wool became the driving force of the English economy and it was in great demand by the weavers of Bruges, Ghent and Ypres in Flanders and further afield in Genoa, Italy. In Yorkshire, wool merchants established a “putting-out” system, the merchants paying artisans by the piece to work on cloth owned by them. The finished cloths were then collected and over 100,000 cloths were exported annually. Independent clothiers with small farms were to be found all over the West Riding, but were especially concentrated in the Halifax area. Some workers bought their own wool at market and took it home to spin and weave and sell on. The following quotations from the 16th and 17th century confirm the rise of Halifax:

The “Halifax” Act, 1555:

“Forasmuche as the Paryshe of Halyfaxe beying planted in the Grete Waste and Moores, where the fertilite of the gronde ys not apte to bring forthe any Corne nor Goode Grasse, only by exceedinge and greate industrye of the inhabitants. The same altogether doo lyve by cloth making. The greate part of them hathe to repair to the Towne of Halyfax and ther bye wooll upon the woolldriver, some a stone, some three or four according to thyre habilitie. And to carry the same to theire houses, some iii, iiii, v and vi myles of, upon theire Headdes and Backs and so to make and convert the same eyther into Yarne or Clothe, and to sell the same and so to bye more woolle. By means of which industrye the Gronde in those parts be nowe much inhabited and above Fyve Hundrethe householders there newly increased within theis Fourtye Years past”.

From James Ryder’s “Commendations of Yorkshire” 1588:

“They excel the rest in policy and industrie, for the use of their trade and groundes, and after the rude and arrogant manner of their wilde country they surpass the rest in wisdom and wealth… so that the rest of the county woulde in this followe them but afar off, the force and wealth of Yorkshire would soon be doubled.”

So it continued and in 1686, William Camden wrote:

“There is nothing so admirable in this town of Halifax as the industrie of the inhabitants who, not withstanding an unprofitable and barraine soil, have so flourished by the cloth trade that they greatly enrich their own estates and winne praise from all their neighbours”.

The new yeomanry around the townships of Halifax used their wealth to build large houses and the number of such fine houses outstripped other areas. The Calderdale local government website tells us that:

“The earliest of these houses have a characteristically uniform plan with a housebody open from ground to roof and aisles providing extra width. Aisles are functional and reveal their builders source of wealth rather than their search for greater comfort. Aisles create a lower room giving additional space in a working household where a clothier might set up looms or store wool and pieces ready for market.

We do not know if Thomas owned such a fine house as described above but judging from his wealth, that may have been the case. Thomas Sheard’s putative father, Richard, had moved to Ovenden,  a township in the parish and union of Halifax, by the 1530s, probably attracted by the new growth in textiles in the area. Maybe he was a woolman too. Thomas Sheard, conducted his own wool business in mid 16th Century Halifax. Just as the West Riding wool trade prospered there, so did he.

The value of Thomas’s estate

In 2006 I attempted to value Thomas’s estate at the value of the day. Using sources from the House of Commons Library, I estimated that the value of Thomas’s bequest to his children of  £100 amounted to some £80,000 at 2006 value.

The two stones of wool that Thomas left to Edward Haldesworth, his brother-in-law, was also valued at 2006 prices. To value the bequest of wool, I consulted “The Enclosures in England, an Economic Reconstruction, Harriett Bradley 1918, House of Commons Library, Kitchener 2001”. This publication lists the price of wool for ten year periods from 1261 to 1582. From 1561-1570, the price of a tod of wool (a tod is 28lbs or 2 stones) was 16 shillings. Thomas left that amount to Edward Holdesworthe, his brother-in -law. Using the same method of calculating, that would amount to £675 worth of goods at 2006 prices.

The remaining two thirds of his property and goods were left to his wife and children and we do not know exactly how much that was, but clearly he was quite a wealthy man, perhaps not a millionaire by our standards, but certainly “middle-class” and comfortably off.

Thomas’s widow, Margaret Sheard (born Holdesworth)

Margaret, Thomas’s widow may have been born 1528-1532 in Southowram. The Latter Day Saints records give her parents as Richard Holdesworth and Margaret Waterhouse of Ashday, Southowram. However, it appears from the research of Deb Walker in Mirfield that Margaret, daughter of Richard Holdsworth, who died in 1543, did not have a brother called Edward. A transcript of Richard Holdsworth’s will clearly mentions his children; Robert, John, William, Christopher, Margaret and Anne.  He doesn’t mention a son called Edward and we know that “our” Margaret Holdsworth had a brother called Edward, because her husband Thomas Sheard mentions him in his will c.f. “Edward Haldesworthe, my wife’s brother”. Deb feels sure that, when Richard Holdsworth died in 1543, he would have mentioned Edward if he had been his son, especially since we know that Edward was still alive 22 years later in 1565 and had children of his own, which may suggest he was still in his minority in 1543, in which case his father would certainly want to provide for him in his will in some way. Our Margaret was almost certainly related to the influential Holdsworths of Astey/Ashday, just not this particular couple, but we can’t exactly place her position in the family. It is possible that her father was Gylberte Haldesworthe (Holdesworth), who witnessed her husband’s will.

Looking at the burials in Halifax, I found no certain burial for Margaret Sheard. Deb says “Unless she was the “Uxor Thomas Sheard de Ovenden xviii Feb 1576”, but of course she should have been “vidua” not “uxor”. Maybe it would have been a simple mistake for a clerk to write “uxor” rather than “vidua”. Mistakes in Parish records may not be common, but they did occur. However, if we assume that Margaret was younger than Thomas and our birthdate for her is correct, she may only have been in her mid 30s when he died and so remarriage is possible and probably likely. There is a marriage entry at Halifax between a William Wadsworth and a Margaret Sheard in February 1571. William Wadsworth was an Ovenden man and he and his new wife had two daughters, Grace and Margaret, baptised in 1572 and 1575 respectively. There is a burial entry for ‘the wife’ of William Wadsworth of Warley in May 1577 and there are a number of possible re-marriages for this William. But if this Margaret was born as early as 1528, that would make her 49 at the birth of the last child and that would have been quite rare in those days. If she was born as late as 1532, it would still make her 45 at the birth of the last child, which is possible (just). I lean to the idea that it was the Margaret who died in 1576 who was his widow.

Thomas’s legacy in the Kirklees area

Of Thomas’s children, Martin Sheard married and settled in Batley parish. Many of the Batley Sheards are descended from him. Michael, Matthew, and Luke settled in Mirfield parish. Luke appears to have moved to Kirkeaton, as there are a number of records in Kirkheaton referring to him and so the Kirkheaton Sheards in my family are possibly descended from Luke. The vast majority of my Sheard ancestors Have been found to be descended from Thomas Sheard’s eldest son, Michael. So far I have documented 1,824 of his descendants related in some way to me and I have many more still to add to the family tree. Both of my parents are descended from Thomas’s eldest son and are related to each other many times over. What we can say with certainty is that Thomas Sheard started a dynasty in the Kirklees area. If you are a Sheard whose ancestors are from Mirfield or Kirkheaton, I am probably also related to you!

1881 Census returns on the name “Sheard”

The Census of 1881 shows how concentrated the name of “Sheard” still was in the West Riding after the passage of more than 300 years. There were hardly any Sheards outside Yorkshire, the second highest concentration being in Lancashire.

Top Counties

County Total Frequency Index
Yorkshire 2189 0.0756 8.2552
Isle of Man 39 0.0719 7.8487
Berkshire 48 0.0219 2.3898
Oxfordshire 19 0.0105 1.1498
Nottinghamshire 31 0.0079 0.8595
Lancashire 222 0.0064 0.6992
Cheshire 34 0.0053 0.5756
Cardiganshire / Ceredigion 3 0.0042 0.4596
Bedfordshire 6 0.004 0.4331
Derbyshire 16 0.0035 0.3819
Denbighshire / Sir Ddinbych 2 0.0018 0.1979
Warwickshire 13 0.0018 0.1926
Kent 17 0.0017 0.1862
London 42 0.0014 0.157
Somerset 6 0.0013 0.1393
Surrey 18 0.0013 0.1381
Staffordshire 11 0.0011 0.1218
Hampshire 6 0.001 0.1094
County Durham 7 0.0008 0.0879
Shropshire 2 0.0008 0.0865
Gloucestershire 4 0.0007 0.0762
Sussex 3 0.0006 0.0665
Lincolnshire 2 0.0004 0.0467
Devon 2 0.0003 0.0359
Essex 1 0.0002 0.0189

 

Top Parishes

In 1881, most of the Yorkshire Sheards in the UK were still concentrated around the parishes close to and including Mirfield and batley, where Thomas Sheard’s sons settled in the second half of the 16th Century.

Census District County Total Frequency Index
Hartshead Yorkshire 32 2.4672 269.3603
Mirfield Yorkshire 313 1.9693 215.0021
Liversedge Yorkshire 137 1.0631 116.0624
Thornhill Yorkshire 69 0.8169 89.1819
Batley Yorkshire 213 0.7742 84.5272
Kirkheaton Yorkshire 34 0.7242 79.0698
Lindley Cum Quarmby Yorkshire 46 0.63 68.7799
Heckmondwike Yorkshire 49 0.5263 57.4578
Dalton In Huddersfield Yorkshire 28 0.4318 47.138
Warley Yorkshire 34 0.4064 44.3633
Dewsbury Yorkshire 114 0.384 41.921
Southowram Yorkshire 32 0.3622 39.5403
Gomersal Yorkshire 46 0.3404 37.1687
Soothill Yorkshire 31 0.2965 32.3658
Almondbury Yorkshire 40 0.2858 31.1988
Ovenden Yorkshire 35 0.2717 29.6585
Huddersfield Yorkshire 79 0.1873 20.451
Hunslet Yorkshire 59 0.1307 14.2698
Halifax Yorkshire 28 0.0659 7.193
Leeds Yorkshire 78 0.0477 5.209